Paul - The Programmer

simple & stupid

Fix unknown virtual device error for launching android emulator

The problem is after the avd be created successfully, the emulator.exe launching ends up by error 'unknown virtual device name: your-avd-name'. 

I think this error is caused by I moved my Documents folder to "D:\paul\My Docuements". The android.bat tool created the avd files under "D:\paul\.android". But, by default, the emulator tries to load the avd files from "%USERPROFILE%\.android". In my system, it is "C:\Documents and Settings\paul".  

The emulator.exe and android.bat have different logic to caculate the avd files path. One explanation is the emulator is a C app and the android.bat tool is actually a Java based app. 

To solve this problem, the best solution is to define the global environment variable "ANDROID_SDK_HOME".

The value of the "ANDROID_SDK_HOME" is the parent directory path where you want the .android to be created.

e.g.  set ANDROID_SDK_HOME="d:\"

Then the path to .android is d:\.android.

The emulator now can load the virtual device setting properly from d:\.android


Detect CRLF (^M) line terminators in shell script

Shell will complain 'bad interpreter' error for script which contains CRLF (^M) line terminators. 

The error message likes 'bash: ./ /bin/bash^M: bad interpreter: No such file or directory'.

This generally caused by the script file was edited by a windows ( dos ) editor and saved with dos format.

How to check whether a shell script file contains CRLF?  Either the below tricks can help you out.

1) Grep the hex code of CR.

The new line terminator for a text on Unix system is only LF. So, the once the file contains CR, it's not a compatible unix shell script.

The hex code of CR is 0x0D. The grep command is :

grep -c $'\x0D'

-c means print the total number of match character.

To be honestly, I do not understand the $ in this command either. :P  I just found this black magic somewhere by Google.

--- update---

Quote from bash manual page:

Words of the form $'string' are treated specially. The word expands to
string, with backslash-escaped characters replaced as specified by the
ANSI C standard.

2) Find the hex code of CR by Perl Regular Expression.

The theory is the same to the above one. Just replace with Regular Expression. To be more precisely, Regular Expression match the whole CRLF in the end of each line.

perl -n -e 'print if /\x0d\x0a$/;' | wc -l

The hex code of LF is 0x0A. wc is to count all the matched lines.

3) Determin file's line teminator by file. This is my favorite one. :D

Command line tool file is used to check the file type of files. It also report the character set and line terminates of regular text file.

file -m /dev/null

-m /dev/null is a trick to force the file to treat shell script as a regular text file.

Good Linux Tool, find out the biggest file / directory in the system

No matter how big your hard disk is, it can still run out of space someday. So, do some regular cleaning up work is necessary. Free some space by deleting the files which are out of date or not needed anymore.

To get the space consumed by each directory with du and find out the biggest one with sort.


$du --max-depth=1 -h | sort -h -r

Meaning of du options:

--max-depth : print the total size of direcotries on the firest level.

-h  : print the size in human readable format (e.g.  1K, 2M, 3G, etc. ).

Meaning of sort options:

-h : sort human readable format numbers.

-r : reverse the result, the biggest number is on the top.

What I need to do is use this command recursively from the root directory ( / ) . It will finally lead me to the file or directory which consumes most of my storage.

Auto format XML file

1. Format XML file with VIM.

VIM's auto indent feature supports format the XML files. But generally this feature may be disabled by default. 

To enable the auot indent feature, just add the below options in the .vimrc in user's home directory.

filetype indent on

Next time when the xml file be opened by VIM, the xml file type's indent script will be auotmatically loaded as well. In my environment, the indent script for xml is /usr/share/vim/vim72/ftplugin/xml.vim. The xml.vim's path may vary in different system.

To format the XML contents, just use the vim command in the command mode:


This command will reformat the entire contents.

2. Fomart XML file with xmllint.

The xmllint are generally used for validating the xml file syntax. But it also has the ability to format and align the XML documents. The XMLLINT_INDENT environmnet variable controls the indentation. The default value is two spaces ( "  " ).

Basically, open the xml file with VIM then execute the below vim command in command mode:


:%!xmllint --format %

This command means the xmllint be excuted with the entire xml document contents as input, then the result of xmllint will be used to update the content of current buffer.

The xmllint also do some refine for the xml document, such as, adding the xml version declaration in the document's head.

The one hundredth day

Today is the one hundredth day of my Cheng Xiao-xiao!